By William J. Murnane, Charles C. Van Siclen III
In the course of the 14th century, at the same time Egypt confronted troubling demanding situations to her empire, the main easy constructions of society all of sudden got here less than assault from an unforeseen area - the pharoah himself. Amenhotep IV (c. 1353-1336 B.C.), either god-king and excessive priest of all of the gods within the Nile Valley, acted opposed to all precendent via taking flight his aid from the orthodox faith. instead of Egypt's many conventional divinities, he promoted a completely new type of the solar God embodied within the sun orb "Aten", a hitherto minor determine within the pantheon. while the king made up our minds to wreck with the earlier, he replaced his identify to Akhenaten and verified for his god a brand new cult heart on virgin flooring in heart Egypt. To outline the positioning of Akhet-Aten ("Horizon of Aten"), the king commissioned a few glorified frontier markers the boundary stelae. those have been implementing monuments that symbolically validated the royal presence, by way of statues and reliefs depicting the royal relatives, and preserved for posterity the decrees which had initiated the city's starting place. The 15 identified boundary monuments of Akhenaten have been chanced on within the 20 years that bridged the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, yet they have been incompletely served via the pioneering courses that first made them recognized. The authors, either recognized Egyptologists, labored at El-Amarna from 1983 to 1989, making clean copies of the inscriptions and learning the websites of the stelae themselves. the result of their investigations, that are released right here, contain a definitive new version of the texts with smooth translations, including a wide-ranging research of the historical past which galvanized and is mirrored in those monuments.
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Extra info for Boundary Stelae Of Akhentaten
In .... (gS) X:32 (K:33) [ ... with]in them, with fresh lands within them, with new lands within them, [ ... ). XI. Proper Maintenance of the Cult at Akhet-Aten "Now, make the ... [for the offerin]gs (is) which I dedicate to the Orb, m[y fat]her, in 'Horizon of [the Orb]'. I myself am the one who should make X:33 of[ferings] (K-34)to the [Orb, m]y father in the House of the Orb in 'Horizon of (M:33) the Orb'. ) [ ... )] (is). XII. Another Ritual Matter concernin2 the Oueen and the Court (K:35 + M:34) "Similarly the feast of the Orb with the oblations on the river, [ ...
We[re] offensive K:22 · .. ) offensive, in order that it would not be offensive. As for the offensive things · .. ) leave (m4) ... 'I am committing an offense' [a~ainst the lord of "Horizon O[r]b", my f[ather], THE AT[EN] (04). ) (04) ... ' (p4) IX. ) taken (q4) like · .. any [... ] .... [nor] shall I ... ) 'Horizon of the Orb' (r4) ... )] land prospers ... of the Orb'. ) [Kh]or (t4).... K:25 · .. ] (u4) ... ). ) [... the] Orb (v4) ] therein ... ]0 (y4) ... ) ... ) ... ] (x4) ... father ... ]) ...
Fath]er (16) army in its entirety, (and) [ ... ]s (and) [ ... )] (06) in 'Horizon of the Orb' for everyone, and upon [the ~] xx. kin~. the rays of the Orb upon him, consisting of life and dominion, (namely, for) Neferkheprure-Waenre. ) the Orb, One being caused to come to rest there, in (q6) 'Horizon of the Orb' (r6) forever and ever. ) Least controversial is the reading of the numeral for the day. The text is clearest on K, which shows "10" under prt, with room for three strokes beside it (although only one and the bottom of a second are preserved here).