By George K Williams
Colonel Williams provides a finished examine of British bombing efforts within the nice struggle. He contends that the authentic model of prices and effects underplays the prices whereas overplaying the consequences. Supported via postwar findings of either US and British review groups, he argues that British bombing efforts have been considerably much less potent than heretofore believed. Colonel Williams additionally provides a powerful argument that German air defenses prompted significantly much less harm to British forces than pilot mistakes, malfunctioning plane, and undesirable climate. That we believed in a different way helps the suggestion that British bombing raids had compelled Germany to move major air resources to protect opposed to them. Williams, even though, came upon no proof that this type of move happened. real effects, Colonel Williams argues, stand in robust distinction to claimed effects.
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Extra info for Biplanes and Bombsights: British Bombing in World War I
Maurer, vol. 4, 558, note 31a. 71 . AIR 1/1999/204/273/269, Major Paul to Air Ministry, 26 February 1919. 32 NO. 3 WING ROYAL NAVAL AIR SERVICE 72. Neville Jones, The Origins of Strategic Bombing, 116; and H. A. Jones, War in the Air, vol. 2, 452 . 73. AIR l/ 111 / 15/39/ 1, Official Raid Report, 23 October 1916. 74 . R. B . Davies, Sailor in the Air (London: 1967), 154. 75. AIR l/ 111 / 15/39/ 1, Official Raid Report, 30 October 1916. 76. , Admiralty Communique no. 269, 6 December 1916. 77. Maurer, 386-87.
They also decided to launch at least one retaliatory raid on Mannheim as soon as possible. 12 Four days later, the prime minister appointed a committee of two (himself and Jan Christiaan Smuts, the highly regarded South African general and statesman) to reevaluate British air policy. In particular, they would examine home defense and the air organization : 1. The defence arrangements for home defence against air raids. 2 . The air organisation generally and the direction of aerial operations . 's These initiatives must now be examined insofar as they affected the program to resume the long-range bombardment of Germany: To this end, Smuts's "Second Report of the Prime Minister's Committee on Air Organisation and Home Defence against Air Raids," submitted on 17 August 1917, provided considerable impetus.
6, 120-21) :specifies the payload ; a typical Handley Page 0 100 bomb load is assumed. 34. H. A. Jones, War in the Air, vol. 6:, fn. 121 . 35. Ibid. 36. ADM 1/8844/39A, "Defence Against Zeppelin Raids," 4 April 1916. 37. H. A. Jones, War in the Air, vol. 6, 121-22. 38. PRO, AIR 2/123, Haig to War Office, letter, subject: Sir Douglas Haig's Criticism of Aerial Policy in France, 1 November 1916. 39. H. A. Jones, War in the Air, vol. 6, 122. 40. AIR 2/123, Lord George Nathaniel Curzon, memorandum to War Committee, 9 November 1916 .