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Betrayers of the Truth : Fraud and Deceit in the Halls of by NICHOLAS WADE WILLIAM BROAD

By NICHOLAS WADE WILLIAM BROAD

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He increased the literacy levels of the clergy and helped give the small educated class of Europe a stronger place in civil society. One of the consequences of the Carolingian Renaissance, as it is sometimes called, was a greater interested in regaining ancient knowledge. Christian scholars traveled to centers of learning in Spain, such as Toledo, and to the cities of Alexandria, Jerusalem, and even Baghdad to study and translate Arabic and Greek material into Latin. Among the early Greek works to be translated was Alchemy and the Concept of Elements Plato’s Timaeus, which gave medieval scholars an introduction to matter theory.

Galen had been the personal physician to four emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius. He had investigated anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology, writing extensively on these subjects, as well as on aspects of philosophy. 1 Galen was an Aristotelian, and his medical work was based on a belief in the Aristotelian elements, qualities, and causes. The hints of a greater system in Galen’s medical texts helped to keep alive an interest in Greek thought. ). Charlemagne (also known as Charles the Great) conquered a large portion of Europe, including all of modern France and Germany and most of Italy.

3, trans. J. L. edu. 3. Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, trans. mit. txt. 3 MATTER THEORY IN CHINA, THE MIDDLE EAST, AND INDIA The pursuit of knowledge about chemistry depended on a combination of theory and practical investigation. While the early philosophers supplied theory, it was others who over time supplied practical knowledge about matter. Some of that knowledge came from the everyday work of smiths, potters, brewers, and other artisans, but the hunt for the secrets of matter came from people we now collectively refer to as alchemists.

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