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Extra info for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
1 Artificial landmarks For P-SURO AUV, the main purpose of underwater vision is to provide localization information for the vehicle's path planning task. In the path decades, vision has become one of most intense research area in the robot community, and various artificial landmarks and corresponding recognition methods have been developed (Hartley & Zisserman, 2000). The pattern designed for P-SURO AUV is shown in Fig. 5, which consists of two rectangles and two sets of four dots with the same cross-ratio.
Test environments. Fig. 9. Test results 5. , 2005). , 2005). 30 Autonomous Underwater Vehicles For P-SURO AUV, as aforementioned, most of its underwater operations are carried out in the engineering basin in PIRO. For this reason, we have designed a relatively simple SLAM method with partially known environment. 1 Range sonar model There are three Micron Echosounder@Tritech (6o conical beamwidth with 500kHz operating frequency) mounted on the vehicle; each of forward, backward, and downward. , 2005) for all of these sonar behaviour.
Designed underwater pattern for P-SURO AUV. (1) Development of a Hovering-Type Intelligent Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, P-SURO 27 Fig. 6. Cross-ratio in the projective space. The eight dots in the pattern contain 3D pose information. For extracting these dots, we use the cross-ratio invariant, which is a basic projective invariant of perspective space (Hartley & Zisserman, 2000). The cross-ratio is defined as following ( , , , )= | || | | || | , (2) where = . The cross-ratio value defined in (2) is invariant under any projective transformation of the ( ′ , ′ , ′ , ′ )= ( , , , ).