By Joseph Rotblat, Ubiratan D'Ambrosio
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Extra info for World Peace and the Developing Countries: Annals of Pugwash 1985
Zaire signed the NPT and concluded a safeguards agreement with IAEA. Ghana. In 1961 Nkrumah signed an agreement with the USSR for a nuclear research reactor and research facility at Kwabenya. The facility began operating in 1964 while the reactor was still under construction. The entire research facility was closed down and the Soviet technicians were sent home after the overthrow of Nkrumah in 1966. Recently, a government committee was formed to investigate the possi- AFRICA AND NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION 33 bility of restarting the nuclear programme, utilising the national still available in personnel original trained universities and institutes.
The outcome of this, plus a number of other no less important factors, was a dramatic slow down in the development of nuclear power in the whole world. The projected nuclear power programmes are now an order of magnitude lower than they were in 1970, with every projection being lower than the earlier one. As Table 2 shows, only about 22 per cent of all countries now have or plan to have nuclear power. Clearly, the need for assistance in nuclear technology can no longer serve as a general inducement to give up nuclear weapons.
By mid-1977 more than 155 American nuclear technologists and scientists had visited South Africa to provide training and assistance, and 90 white South Africans had received training in USA (including the Argonne, Brookhaven and Oak Ridge Laboratories). South Africans were also trained in West Germany and FranceS. In 1971 South Africa set up an enrichment pilot plant at Valindaba, which is not under any safeguards. In 1974 the President of the South African Atomic Energy Board affirmed his confidence that his country would soon be marketing enriched uranium and fuel elements for power reactors, in view of its uranium resources and uranium enrichment expertise and technology.