By Erode G. Mahadevan
The publication describes the technological know-how and expertise of formula and production of non-nitroglycerine explosives with ammonium nitrate because the major element. according to the author's event of greater than thirty years, it presents an unheard of remedy of 1 of the commercially most vital periods of explosives and as a result stimulates extra study and improvement efforts within the box of explosives for civil applications.Content:
Chapter 1 class of Explosives (pages 1–3):
Chapter 2 Explosive technological know-how (pages 5–14):
Chapter three Ammonium Nitrate Explosives (pages 15–30):
Chapter four Ammonium Nitrate and AN/FO (pages 31–58):
Chapter five Slurries and Water Gels (pages 59–112):
Chapter 6 Emulsion Explosives (pages 113–155):
Chapter 7 learn and improvement (pages 157–162):
Chapter eight useful protection in the course of Manufacture of AN Explosives (pages 163–177):
Chapter nine Economics of AN?Based Explosives (pages 179–193):
Chapter 10 present prestige and Concluding feedback (pages 195–197):
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Extra resources for Ammonium Nitrate Explosives for Civil Applications: Slurries, Emulsions and Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oils
In the meanwhile to satisfy the requirements of the explosive industry, which had discovered AN/FO as a substitute for NG explosives in large-diameter blasting, process parameters were altered to obtain lower density (LD) porous prills. 7). Inert coatings effective at low percentages were added after prilling. A large amount of applied R&D succeeded in developing processes which could yield the desired quality AN prills for the explosives industry. Patent literature in plenty claimed many innovations to achieve the desired results such as low height prilling tower, several stages of cooling for hardening and for developing capillaries on the surface of the prill, ﬁxed/rotary dispersion of AN liquor at the top of the prilling tower, and so on.
The initial mixing is invariably between AN and FO. Mixing can be either in a batch process or continuous. The latter is preferred for ease of handling. Horizontal Batch Mixing In the batch process, the AN prills are taken into a standard, polished, stainless steel, or aluminum double helix mixer, equipped with forward and reverse possibilities. The clearance is at least 3/4 in. between the blade and the walls of the mixer. The shaft is suspended from outside through a gland packing. Vents are provided from the sides of the mixer to spray in the FO.
3 Manufacture of Ammonium Nitrate Chemically AN can be made starting from the basic elements N2 and H2 : N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3 NH3 + 2O2 = HNO3 + H2 O NH3 + HNO3 = NH4 NO3 The above equations are simpliﬁed representation of the process. In practice, oxidation of ammonia can also produce oxides of nitrogen which have to be disposed off in a nonpolluting manner. The ﬁnal product (AN solution) will have water which will need to be removed. There are many entry points in the production cycle depending on the need to integrate backward, availability of capital, and ﬁnal economics.