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Advanced cardiovascular exercise physiology by Denise L. Smith

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Sample text

Several echocardiography variables can be used as an expression of systolic function (or contractility), including fractional shortening, ejection fraction, and regional wall motion analysis. Fractional shortening is the percentage change in left ventricle dimensions with each contraction (FS = [(LVED − LVES) / LVED] 3 100). The most common expression of global left ventricular function is the left ventricular ejection fraction. Ejection fraction, the ratio of blood volume ejected from the heart to the volume of blood in the heart at the end of diastole, SV/EDV, is a widely used index of contractility.

5, b). 5, c). These protein channels have T-shaped tubes in the interior that appear to be responsible for the release of calcium from the SR. 5, d). 5, e), which is bound to another regulatory protein, tropomysin, on the thin filaments. The binding of calcium to troponin causes troponin to undergo a configurational change and pulls tropomyosin deeper into the groove along the actin strand and off of the active site on actin. This allows the myosin heads to bind to the exposed active site and the cross-bridge cycle is initiated, creating force generation and muscle shortening.

At this point, the AV valves are also closed. Because the ventricles are relaxing and there is no change in ventricular volume, this period is aptly named the isovolumetric relaxation period. This, however, is a brief period; as soon as the pressure in the atria exceeds the pressure in the ventricles, the AV valves are forced open, and blood begins to fill the ventricles. This starts the ventricular filling period and the cycle repeats—approximately 75 times per minute at rest! 4). This graph presents volume of blood in the ventricles on the x-axis and left ventricular pressure on the y-axis.

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