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A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems by Henry A. Kissinger

By Henry A. Kissinger

The Napoleonic Wars have been through a nearly remarkable century of political balance. an international Restored analyses the alliances shaped and treaties signed by means of the world's leaders in the course of the years 1812 to 1822, focussing at the personalities of the 2 major negotiators: Viscount Castlereagh, the British international secretary, and Prince von Metter- nich, his Austrian counterpart. Henry Kissinger explains how the turbulent dating among those males, the differing issues in their respective international locations and the altering nature of international relations all inspired the ultimate form of the peace. initially released in 1957.

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8 But if Prussia used the crisis to clinch her gains, Austria saw in it an opportunity to trim her losses and negotiated a separate peace. Meanwhile, Napoleon's army deployed against Prussia, not yet to destroy her, but to intimidate her into becoming an accomplice by incorporating Hanover and thus isolating herself from Great Britain. And the Russian armies returned to Poland. "One hundred thousand men have defeated five times their number," Metternich exclaimed. "Where is manna? 4 Little wonder that henceforth sought to delay the Austrian commitment until after that of all of its potential allies; that he distrusted protestations of loyalty based on promises of future fulfilment; that he constructed alliances only after a period of a deliberation that seemed maddening to those eager for 1 It is interesting the to note that armed mediation was precisely Metternich's policy IV and V.

1 Correct relations were maintained with Russia, but it was made clear that French forbearance, not Russian assistance, was considered the basis of Austrian policy. The condition of Austrian survival was a relaxation of French pressure. But pressure would not be relaxed and negotiations would be meaningless without a framework of confidence. And confidence presupposed a principle to which Napoleon found it possible to agree, which identified the interests of Austria and France, at least to a certain extent.

It is proposed now to overcome the revolution; but so long as this revolution does not appear in more distinct shape . . England is not ready to combat it. "3 "Upon any other question purely political" —this was the foreign policy doctrine of an insular power convinced of the unassailability of its domestic institutions. C. xn, p. 90, Webster, n, p. 3 Webster, n, p. • 7 December, 1813. 240. 283. A 36 WORLD RESTORED for Metternich, the Continental statesman. But the difference was not yet apparent in 1812.

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