By Lucy Eldersveld Murphy
In a meeting of Rivers, Lucy Eldersveld Murphy lines the histories of Indian, multiracial, and mining groups within the western nice Lakes quarter throughout the eighteenth and early 19th centuries. For a century the Winnebagos (Ho-Chunks), Mesquakies (Fox), and Sauks effectively faced waves of French and British immigration through diversifying their economies and commercializing lead mining.Focusing on own tales and designated group histories, Murphy charts the replaced monetary forces at paintings within the zone, connecting them to shifts in gender roles and intercultural relationships. She argues that French, British, and local peoples cast cooperative social and monetary bonds expressed in part by means of mixed-race marriages and the emergence of multiethnic groups at eco-friendly Bay and Prairie du Chien. considerably, local peoples within the western nice Lakes sector have been capable of adapt effectively to the hot frontier industry financial system till their lead mining operations grew to become the envy of outsiders within the 1820s.
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Extra info for A Gathering of Rivers: Indians, Metis, and Mining in the Western Great Lakes, 1737-1832
While these wars raged, in epidemics of what may have been measles also attacked the Mesquakies, who had numbered well over , in the s. 15 The postwar period, then, was a time of healing and re-creating shattered Mesquakie and Sauk communities in the western Wisconsin River region, while to the east the Winnebagos and other Indians also adjusted to the peace. French Canadian merchant-oﬃcials developed the fur trade in the Fox-Wisconsin and surrounding regions while they tried to keep peace between the tribes.
28 One exception to this principle was the status of slaves in Indian society. Since slaves were war captives, this anomaly probably arose because warfare, being by its very nature coercive, nulliﬁed the doctrine of individual freedom for enemies, even captive enemies. Regardless, many prisoners were adopted and considered to have equal citizenship. 29 An example is found in the case of a Pawnee who had been brought to the Fox-Wisconsin as a war captive, probably during the s. 30 Whether Little Elk’s grandfather was freed by adoption, marriage, or military service is unclear, but his grandfather’s status as a prisoner does not seem to have adversely aﬀected Little Elk’s authority.
Native women were crucial to forging links between people in the Fox-Wisconsin region. ) 1 Native American Village Economies and the Fur Trade in the Mid–Eighteenth Century In late August Indian residents of the Fox-Wisconsin region were celebrating the harvest, ﬁnishing the work of summer, and preparing for the winter activities to come. During the month that the Sauks and Mesquakies called the Elk Moon and the Winnebagos knew as the CornPopping Moon, women picked crops, dried them, and stored most of this food in underground caches.